Neurology is a science that deals with diagnosis and medical treatment of disorders of the nervous system (brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves). Since the functioning of muscles depends on the signals transmitted by the nerves, muscle and movement disorders are also included in diseases that are diagnosed and treated in this field.
Diseases diagnosed and treated in neurology department:
- Neurologic diseases caused by occlusion, aneurysm and malformation in cerebral arteries (strength loss in body (unilateral or bilateral), particularly stroke; speech disorder, headache, dizziness, vision disorders, loss of consciousness, sudden hypotension or hypertension etc.)
- Alzheimer’s Disease
- Multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases
- Sleep apnea
- Movement Disorders (Parkinson’s disease, dystonia, essential tremor, restless leg syndrome)
- Duchenne muscular dystrophy
- Myasthenia Gravis
- Entrapment neuropathy
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
Neurologic Diagnosis and Treatment
A comprehensive neurologic examination is principally performed for a patient with a neurologic disorder who presents to the neurology department. Patient’s medical history, family history and other patient factors (nutrition, lifestyle, environmental factors) are evaluated during this examination. In addition to blood and urine tests, imaging studies are also ordered and results are reviewed. In addition to such data, the diagnostic tests specific to the neurology department are performed. In accordance with these diagnostic tests, final diagnosis is made and the medical treatment is initiated. The patient is referred to neurosurgery department if surgical management is required.
Diagnostic Tests and Laboratories Specific for Neurology Department
Intraoperative neuromonitoring: Being used in high-risk neurosurgery procedures, this method enables differentiation of diseased and intact nerve tissue during the surgery. The modality is utilized during the surgery by a neurologist who is educated and experienced in neurophysiology.
Polysomnography (Sleep Test): Also called sleep test, polysomnography is the gold standard in diagnosis of sleep apnea (temporary breathing lapses during sleep) and restless leg syndrome. Polysomnography usually lasts throughout the night and the test is carried out in a specially designed polysomnography room. Various electrodes are placed on the patient’s body and the parameters including brain signals, eye movements, contraction and relaxation of the muscles, respiratory movements, leg movements etc. are recorded. To obtain a reliable polysomnography result, the patient should sleep for at least 4 hours.
EEG (Electroencephalography): Electroencephalography is a diagnostic tool measuring and displaying the brain waves in the form of a chart. An EEG can be studied during sleep or awake period. Electrodes are placed on patient’s head and electrical activity of the brain is measured. This modality is employed to diagnose the nervous diseases, particularly epilepsy, and headaches and understand the underlying causes of these disorders.
EMG (Electromyography): Electromyography is a test performed to evaluate whether the muscles and nerves transmit the electric signals. Signals that are too weak for the patient to feel are transmitted and nerve transmission in nerve-nerve junctions and nerve-muscle junctions are measured. This test is beneficial to detect nerve and muscle damages in entrapment neuropathies, muscle diseases, hernias, polyneuropathies and motor neuron diseases.
Evoked potentials: Evoked potentials is a series of tests used in diagnosis of nervous system disorders by measuring the responses of nervous system to a stimulus such as electrical current or light. Various evoked potential tests, such as VEP, BAOP, SSEP and BERA, are utilized to diagnose the target diseases.
All means of modern medicine for both medical and surgical management of neurologic diseases and post-treatment neurologic rehabilitation are available in global hospital and physician network of Hera Healthcare.
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