The growth rate of cells in the human body is checked and regulated by certain control mechanisms. Genetic and environmental factors impair this control mechanism, resulting in abnormal cell growth and cancer.
Three main methods are used in treatment of cancer:
2-Radiation therapy or radiotherapy
- Hormone therapies
- Biologic therapies
- Targeted Therapies
Medical Oncology is a discipline of medicine that deals with prevention and treatment of cancer. This department plays a leading role in diagnosis and treatment of all cancers in the human body, excluding blood and lymphatic cancers. After the location and characteristics of the cancer are identified through imaging methods (computerized tomography, bone scintigraphy, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, ultrasound and direct X-ray), the final diagnosis requires a biopsy. There are two major types of cancers: Primary and metastatic. Primary cancer implies the cancers that originate from the tissue where they are identified. On the other hand, metastatic cancers originate from a tissue or organ and spreads to another body organ or tissue, such as a cancer originating from the pulmonary tissue and spreading to a bone over lymph or blood circulation.
The key to successful treatment: Early Diagnosis
After the final diagnosis is made, the cancer is staged. The stages of cancer are symbolized with Roman numerals (I to IV). The stage of cancer is determined according to certain criteria, such as spread to close or distant tissues, size of the tumor and invasion of lymph nodes. Treatment options depend on the stage of cancer for all types of cancers.
Medical Oncology Clinic works in cooperation with surgical departments/divisions for early stage cancers (Stage I and II) which are treatable with surgery. Chemotherapy can be given before the surgical removal of the tumor depending on the type and stage of cancer, while postoperative chemotherapy protocol can be planned and applied to boost the success rate of the operation and prevent relapse in some cases.
Chemotherapy can also be combined with radiotherapy in pre-and post-operative periods in patients for whom surgical treatment is an option. Besides, in breast and thyroid cancers, hormone therapy can be given alone or before/after the surgery. Targeted therapy (smart drugs, immunotherapy) is one of the innovations originating from novel developments in the medicine.
Multidisciplinary Approach ensures that no detail is missed!
Although Medical Oncology plays a leading role in determining and performing the most appropriate option among the above mentioned treatments, a multidisciplinary approach is adopted in line with the medical advancements. After diagnosis and staging phases are completed, a tumor council of a medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, gynecologic oncologist (female reproductive system cancers), general surgeon, breast surgeon and pediatric oncologist, among others, investigates and decides the most appropriate option for the patient. For example, breast cancer is divided into two major groups. Treatment options for two major groups depend on many factors, such as the stage of cancer, mutations and receptors. Multidisciplinary approach is both beneficial and necessary for treatment of such a complex diseases as well as management of the side effects during and after treatment. Accordingly, efficiency of the treatment is maximized, while potential side effects of the treatment are managed properly.
By the virtue of global hospital and physician network of Hera Healthcare, the Medical Oncology Department uses every means of modern medicine to treat the cancer; in addition, a personalized diet is planned throughout the treatment process and psychological support is provided, whenever needed.
Always keep in mind that the most successful treatment of cancer is prevention and that the success rate is pretty high for cancers detected at early stage and the sole way to detect a cancer at an early stage is health examination at regular intervals.
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